Archive for ‘Curtain Wall Design’

December 3, 2011

Two Financial Towers | MA2

The design of the Two Towers, by MA2 in collaboration with CZ Visual Architecture, is a series of manipulated manifolds that construct a dual vertical lattice with angled surfaces. The towers radiate vertically deriving from a multi-sided body, diamond shaped, molded, intended for diversity, complexity, and robustness in form. Elongated diamond bodies functions as a poly-operational structure that addresses flows of energy, circulation, dynamic composites, both aesthetically and material make up.

It is important to have an array of projecting elements within the design aesthetic and logic to generate sensuous formal manipulations that give a dynamic presence to the surrounding environment. In order to meet the desired effect of constructing a set of towers that are an image of elegance, design robustness, and economic valiancy, the two towers are in a state of motion and vibrant play of parts – volumes which generate synergized architecture. Economic towers are elements which give identity to financial sectors and districts, so in order retain confidence, the towers are composed so they are not competing agents but are complementary tectonics and a have dynamic interplay of bodies.

Ground level interaction is an important part of the design proposal because it serves as a face in which the public flow around the building and circulate inside. These are the points of departure which govern the varied sensibilities, logic, and tectonic intensities that give the towers vigor as an image of economic resiliency.

http://www.archdaily.com/184484/two-financial-towers-ma2/

October 10, 2011

Administration Building No. 5 – Roche Diagnostics Inc., Rotkreuz, Switzerland | Burckhardt+Partner AG

An energy-efficient high rise building in the tradition of the puristic corporate architecture of Roche

The Roche office tower in Rotkreuz, Switzerland, was the winning entry of a competition in 2008. The brief required an energy-efficient high rise building which stands in the tradition of the puristic corporate architecture of Roche. The 68m high, all around glazed building is the landmark of the Roche site. It is vertically separated in 3 parts: a 6m high lobby, 13 office floors and a double height space containing auditorium and sky lobby as a visual top of the building.

Public and private spaces are distinguished by the use of different materials; elegant red marble in the lobby, brown carpet and oak spiral stairs the office floors and oak parquet in the sky lobby. All spaces are visually connected by the free standing fair faced concrete core. The office floors are connected by 12 spiral stairs, surrounding the core three times from bottom to top. The structural system of the high rise is characterised by rhombus shaped, 4 floors high façade columns.

The brand new ‘closed cavity façade’ is an integral part of the energy efficiency of the building. Generic principle of the two layer façade is a completely sealed cavity containing the sunshading of each façade element. The core of the energy supply is a combination of heat pump and chiller. The ventilation of the building is covered by local façade ventilation units.

Through half of the year the building can be cooled with fresh air from outside without extra cooling energy. The concrete floor slabs are thermally activated. Additionally, absorbing strips have been embedded in the concrete soffit to maintain the required acoustic quality. The first time use of a high pressure fog system in a building instead of a common sprinker system is rounding up the technical features.

http://www.worldarchitecturenews.com/index.php?fuseaction=wanappln.projectview&upload_id=17609

and from the architect’s website:

The Roche Diagnostics AG Rotkreuz is located next to the Rütihof highway off-ramp. The site for the new administrative building, where the new structure will be erected, is at the southern end of the transverse axis of the terrain. The structure, 68 m tall, will line up with the existing neighboring buildings, which thus defines its exact location.

The outer shell of the office tower is in the form of a curtain wall façade which, light conditions permitting, offers a more or less clear view of the inner support structure of the V-posts.

The architectural design proposes a nearly square footprint with two load-bearing cores constituting the central zone. The work areas are arranged in circular fashion around this core zone. Since the building supports are located at the perimeter, i.e. façade, it allows for a ground plan without pillars and with maximum flexibility on all levels.

The ground floor of the administrative building, with its raised foyer, relates to the new site while at the same time featuring an open concept in all directions. Located above this stylish foyer are two IT levels and eleven additional office levels accommodating 625 employees. Internal traffic is facilitated via spiral stairways each of which connects two levels. The conference rooms and individual offices are transparent compartments integrated into the large office space. The Convention Center, extending on the garret level above two stories below, includes a large raised auditorium and associated conference rooms

http://www.burckhardtpartner.ch/en/projekte/projektliste/roche-administration-building/ancProject_view?cat=verwaltung

May 16, 2011

Seattle Public Library, Main Branch #3, Seattle, WA

ID: 3151

Alt. Name:

Seattle Public Library, Central Library #3, Seattle, WA
Seattle Library Downtown Branch #3, Seattle, WA

Construction Date:

Start Date: 2000   End Date: 2004

Building History:

Competition occurred in 1999, among five invited firms: Office of Metropolitan Architecture (OMA), Rotterdam, Netherlands; Steven Holl, New York, NY; Norman Foster and Partners, London, UK; Cesar Pelli, New Haven, CT; and Zimmer Gunsul Frasca (ZGF), Portland, OR; finalists were OMA, Steven Holl, and ZGF; OMA awarded the contract in September 1999; OMA Partners-in-Charge: Rem Koolhaas and Joshua Ramus; LMN Partner-in-Charge: John Nesholm; Seattle City Librarian, Deborah Jacobs, collaborated with OMA and LMN closely on the project; Jacobs emphasized a collaborative approach to design, eliciting ideas from the public and staff in frequent meetings; renowned engineer, Cecil Balmond, Chairman of Europe & Building Division at Arup, the huge engineering firm, participated in the engineering work on the building; Dewhurst Macfarlane and Partners engineered the glass curtain wall façade; the curtain wall was awarded an American Institute of Architects Washington Chapter 2000 Award; Hoffman Construction Company was the building contractor; subsequent to the building’s completion, a dispute arose over cost over-runs between Hoffman Construction and the administration of the Seattle Public Library; Bruce Mau Design Incorporated, Toronto, ON, consulted on the library’s signage; Petra Blaisse was the landscape architect; in 1999, the scheduled completion date was 2003, although several factors conspired to delay the opening: asbestos removal from the old library was slow, the construction company experienced excavation problems, a retaining wall on Fifth Avenue needed extra repairs, and delays occurred in the ordering of the steel members forming for the facade; the building actually opened Sunday, 05/23/2004;

Structure Type:

built works – social and civic buildings – libraries

Locations:

Structure:
1000 4th Avenue
Seattle, WA
USA
map latlong or map of street number

Architects:

Arup, Ove , (1438)
Balmond, Cecil , (1969)
Blaisse, Petra , (1958)
Brown, Jim , (1899)
Dewhurst, Laurence , (1698)
Hoffman, Lee Hawley , (1700)
Hunter, Adam , (1898)
Koolhaas, Rem , (1180)
Loschky, George , (1956)
Macfarlane, Timothy , (1699)
Marquardt, Judsen , (1957)
Mau, Bruce , (505)
McBride, Damien , (1897)
Nesholm, John F., (1578)
Ramus, Joshua , (1577)
Zimmer, Robert , (1618)

Partners: 

Arup, Ove, and Partners (1011)
Dewhurst Macfarlane and Partners, Structural Engineers (1219)
Hoffman Construction Company (1220)
Inside / Outside, Landscape Architects (1408)
Loschky Marquardt and Nesholm (LMN) (1127)
Mau, Bruce, Design Incorporated (1221)
Office of Metropolitan Architecture (OMA) (794)

Publications: 

Knecht, Barbara, “Defining Component-Based Design”, Architectural Record, 153-160, 7/2004. 
Olson, Sheri, “How Seattle learned to stop worrying and love Rem Koolhaas’plans for a new Central Library”,Architectural Record, 120-125, 8/2000. 
Olson, Sheri, “Thanks to OMA’s blending of cool information technology and warm public spaces Seattle’s Central Library kindles book lust”, Architectural Record, 192: 7, 88-101, 7/2004. 
Lamprecht, Barbara, “The nice and the good: library, Seattle, USA”, Architectural Review, 216: 1290, 52-57, 
“Been there”, Architecture Boston, 9: 1, 14-19, 01-02/2006. 
Kipnis, Jeffrey, “A Time for Freedom”, Architecture Interruptus, 18-20, 2007. 
“Bibliothek in Seattle”, Arch Plus, 156: 56-65, 5/2001. 
Hantzschel, Jarg, “Zentralbibliothek in Seattle”, Baumeister, 101: 7, 40-49, 7/2004. 
Clausen, Meredith L., “Infopools und atmende Bucherregale : Entwurf Offentliche Bibliothek Seattle”, Bauwelt, 94: 27-28, 22-24, 7/25/2003. 
“Seattle Central Library”, GA Document, 80: Front cover, 8-61, 6/2004. 
“Seattle Public Library”, Library Journal, 130: 2, 15, 02/01/2005. 
“Algoritmi genetici: il diagramma delle funzioni trasformato in forma spettacolare in tre progetti di OMA a Seattle, Berlino e Seul = Genetic algorithm: the functional diagram transformed in spectacular fashion in three projects by OMA in Seattle, Berlin and Seoul.”, Lotus International, 127: 52-65, 
Ouroussoff, Nicolai, “Civic Boosterism Never Looked So Sexy”, New York Times, 2, 46, 12/26/2004. 
Patton, Phil, “DESIGN; I Like the New Car, but I Love the New Building”, New York Times, 7, 10/26/2005. 
Gunderson, Mary Parlato, “Letters to the Editor: Libraries Venues are sanctuaries for creative imaginations”,Seattle Post-Intelligencer, B7, 11/16/2007. 
“Library architect earns Pritzker Prize”, Seattle Post-Intelligencer, 04/17/2000. 
Marshall, John Douglas, “Rem’s bling-bling ; the library Rem Koolhaas almost didn’t get the chance to design”,Seattle Post-Intelligencer, F1, 5/23/2004. 
Mulady, Kathy, “Library steeling for work delays”, Seattle Post-Intelligencer, B3, 3/26/2003. 
Manahan, William W., “Letters to the Editor: Mountains of praise tempered by critical look”, Seattle Post-Intelligencer, D3, 04/01/2007. 
“Plans for new library unveiled today: Architect will show conceptual drawings at Benaroya meeting”, Seattle Post-Intelligencer , C7, 12/15/1999. 
Eskenazi, Stuart, “Something for everyone”, Seattle Times, A1, A12, 09/12/2008. 
Gilmore, Susan, “Library funds put back into city’s budget”, Seattle Times, B2, 11/13/2009. 
“Rahner Q & A Rem Koolhaas”, Seattle Times, E1-E2, 09/09/2008. 
“Nordstrom + The Library + Frederick and Nelson + The Convention Center + The Mayor + Developers = The Deal That Ate Downtown”, Seattle Weekly, 17-21, 23-25, 02/09/1994. 
Lacayo, Richard, “Rem Koolhaas”, Time, 171: 19, 105, 05/12/2008. 

Websites:

Bruce Mau Design Inc. (646) Dewhurst Macfarlane and Partners Engineering structures worldwide (645) LMN Architects (752) News Release 20 April 1999 Library Board narrows list of architects to design new central library on April 22 (1605) Office of Metropolitan Architecture (744) On Architecture: How the new central library really stacks up (1913) Seattle downtown library: a modern marvel? (3431) Seattle Public Library (747)Seattle’s Eccentric ‘Book Behemoth’ Shatters Stereotypes (1778)

https://digital.lib.washington.edu/architect/structures/3151/

March 7, 2011

enclos

Service and Technology

Enclos is expert in the design, engineering, fabrication, assembly and erection of custom facade systems, providing complete design-build services to the construction marketplace.

We specialize in innovative architecture and challenging building projects. No project is too large, no building site too difficult for our seasoned operations teams.

Our work experience includes many projects with specialized materials, complex geometry, novel structural and mechanical system designs. Enclos curtainwall, facade and skylight systems combine innovative design with state-of-the-art materials and performance.

Our client groups are threefold:

Architect
The most comprehensive design-assist services in the industry have created a committed client base of leading architects that call on us early in the concept development phase of new projects.

General Contractor
The attributes most appreciated by our general contracting clients are our site management capabilities and a track record of meeting demanding project schedules on some of the most challenging building sites imaginable.

Developer
A long history of providing facade solutions combining top quality and performance with competitive economy has created allies of many leading developers.

Loyola University Chicago: Richard J. Klarchek Information CommonsLoyola University Chicago: Richard J. Klarchek Information CommonsLoyola University Chicago: Richard J. Klarchek Information CommonsLoyola University Chicago: Richard J. Klarchek Information Commons

Technology

1.Custom Curtainwall Systems

Enclos offers the most innovative curtainwall systems in the marketplace, combining aesthetic, performance and economic considerations into optimum solutions to our client’s needs. Our inventive unitized systems have evolved through their application on numerous major building projects to represent the state-of-the-art in curtainwall technology and performance. Sophisticated system design features and installation methods have paralleled this evolution, resulting in improved economy as well as superior performance.

What Is Curtainwall

What Is Curtainwall?

Curtainwall is a term applied to a widely used facade technology for cladding large buildings. Curtainwall systems do not carry any dead loads imposed from the building structure. They are designed to support their self-weight and to transfer horizontal loads (wind) incident upon them to the primary building structure.Curtainwall systems are typically “hung” from the building structure — from whence derives the “curtain” reference — and typically attached to the floor slabs. The primary functions of the curtainwall are to resist air and water infiltration and to provide a thermal barrier between inside and out. Curtainwall systems are also designed to accommodate the complexities of deflections, thermal expansion and contraction, building sway and relative movements between floors as caused by wind or seismic loads acting globally or locally on the structure.Special design considerations can include daylighting, thermal, acoustical, security and blast-resistant performance. Curtainwall designs for large buildings are almost always customized to individual project requirements.The craftsmanship required for AESS is a rare competency. We have developed a network of qualified AESS steel fabrication vendors, a network built over time and upon the experience of many successfully completed projects. Enclos is able to manage the delivery process in a manner that best assures predictability of outcome, thus mitigating the risk of budget overruns and schedule delays. Enclos’ QA programs fully incorporate AESS requirements.

Cladding

Cladding

Glass is the most common infill material used in curtainwall systems, but other cladding materials include metal panels, natural stone and terracotta. The curtainwall systems typically span across the floor slabs, creating a need for opaque cladding material over and in the vicinity of the floor slab to conceal the slab edge, fire-safing and any between-floor mechanical systems. A spandrel panel is often located between vision glass panels to conceal this area. To achieve opacity, spandrel glass is treated with a ceramic coating (called a frit), a film, or is incorporated into an assembly called a shadow box.Glass is used extensively as a curtainwall cladding material because of its transparency and ability to provide daylight and view. Solar gain in such applications can present challenges with respect to energy performance, thermal and visual comfort, and represent important design considerations in the development of an appropriate curtainwall facade. Ongoing research and development has positioned the Enclos team to provide optimum solutions to these challenges, and has worked with leading architects in the development of high performance glass facades on many buildings pursuing LEED certification by the US Green Building Council.Enclos has designed curtainwall systems for many LEED certified buildings

Anchorage

Anchorage

It is an exciting time for the development of advanced facade technology. At the same time, the fundamentals of sound curtainwall design have lost none of their critical import.One of the basic considerations that impacts every building project without exception is the means by which the curtainwall is anchored to the building. Anchor design can affect many things beyond the immediate curtainwall design, including the work of other trades and the design of the building interior. As with so many other aspects of the building skin, Enclos continues to lead the way with anchor design. Enclos anchor designs can be positioned on the face, top or bottom of slab, or recessed in any of these positions. The Enclos anchoring method is highly efficient, speeds field installation of the curtainwall and provides optimum economy to the building developer.Curtainwall anchors are set prior to the commencement of unit installation. If the anchors are to be recessed, they are sometimes set prior to the concrete floor slabs being poured, or provision is made for a cavity in the slab into which the anchor assembly will be installed.Our inventive unitized systems have evolved through their application on numerous major building projects to represent the state-of-the-art in curtainwall technology and performance. Sophisticated system design features and installation methods have paralleled this evolution, resulting in improved economy as well as superior performance.

Framing

Framing

Curtainwall is typically designed as cladding materials that are framed and fixed in place by extruded aluminum components. There are two basic types of systems:

  • Stick systems are built from long vertical extrusions (mullion) attached to the building structure, with shorter horizontal extrusions spanning between the vertical mullions to create the frames. Cladding materials are then installed into the frames. Extrusions may be fabricated in the shop, but all assembly, installation and glazing takes place in the field.
  • Unitized systems are a newer adaptation of curtainwall technology that has rapidly grown in use in recent years. The vertical and horizontal framing members are figuratively split, allowing independently framed “units” to be assembled and glazed in the factory. The units can be designed to span multiple floors or multiple horizontal modules, and can incorporate multiple cladding elements including operable vents and windows. The completed units are shipped to the site and simply hung on the building. Unitized systems concentrate fabrication and assembly under controlled factory rather than in the field. The selection between them is dependent upon project specific variables.

Enclos technical personnel can assist you in determining which system type is best for your particular project.

Facade Integration

Facade Integration

In addressing the challenges discussed above, and in meeting the generally escalating performance demands on the building skin, curtainwall designs have become increasingly complex. Facade system requirements now frequently include daylight harvesting, daylight and glare control, artificial lighting, and even power generation. Techniques for addressing these considerations are being integrated into the curtainwall system, providing advanced functionality to the building facade. Photovoltaic systems, shade fins, light shelves, louvers, operable blinds, sensors and multiple skins are among the things being integrated into the curtainwall system.The building community has recognized the facade as a primary means to improve energy performance and occupant comfort, and even as a potential power source.

Installation

Installation

Installation strategy is highly sensitive to specific site, schedule and coordination requirements. All Enclos operations are driven by the requirements of the building site.Unitized curtainwall systems provide optimum flexibility in this regard. Materials can be fabricated, assembled and stored offsite, and be delivered on a just-in-time basis as required to support installation crews, thus minimizing on-site storage and staging requirements on highly congested building sites. Assembled units are delivered to the site on open flatbed trailers. The units can be lifted by crane from the trailer and directly set in place on the building facade. Alternately, units can be designed to be installed from inside the building. Installation crews working from a floor above use a small jib crane to lower the units to a setting crew below. Other techniques are possible depending upon specific project requirements.Installation strategy, site logistics and operations are among the greatest strengths of Enclos, and represent the capability most valued by our general contracting clients.

2.Structural Glass Facades

A new facade technology has gradually emerged in recent decades, driven largely by the pursuit of transparency in the building facade among leading international building designers. This new technology has evolved in long-span applications, and can be categorized by the various structural systems employed as support. New glazing systems are also a part of this technology, with the various point-fixed systems finding most frequent use.

Structural Systems

Structural glass facades are most easily categorized by the structure types that support them.

1.Strongback Systems

Strongback systems comprise a remarkably diverse range of novel structural solutions in facade applications. The structural systems are built up from structural sections capable of accommodating the required span. These systems can include both vertical and horizontal structural components. Sometimes verticals are used with no horizontals. Conversely, an interesting variation of this system type eliminates the vertical mullion, with horizontal components suspended from overhead cables and fixed to anchoring building structure at their ends. Strongback systems also include hierarchical structural frames and braced frames.

Cathedral of Christ the Light
LAUSD Central LA Area High School #9
Orange County Performing Arts Center

click for a complete list of this project type

2.Truss Systems

Truss systems employ a planar truss design, often in a hierarchical system that may combine other element types including tension components. Truss designs vary widely, with an emphasis on fine detailing and craftsmanship. They often involve complex steel fabrications, frequently manufactured to Architecturally Exposed Structural Steel (AESS) standards. Rod or cable elements may be incorporated into the truss design, and lateral tensile systems are often used to stabilize the facade structure. Simple truss elements are often bordered by one or two cable trusses in a repeating pattern as a means to lighten the structural profile of the facade.

LA Live Tower & Residences: Podium
Eskind Biomedical Library
San Diego Convention Center
Washington Convention Center

click for a complete list of this project type

3.Cable Trusses

One type of truss system utilizes a minimalist structural form called a cable truss. While cable trusses can vary widely in both truss design and configuration with vertical, overhead, vaulted and domed forms easily achieved, the trusses themselves are most often characterized by spreader strut elements representing the only compression members in the structural system. As with cable nets, these systems rely on the pre-tensioning of truss elements to provide stability, and thus benefit significantly from the early involvement of the facade design/build team.

Suvarnabhumi Airport Bangkok
Lloyd D. George Federal Courthouse
San Jose Civic Center

click for a complete list of this project type

4.Grid Shells

Grid shell structural systems are another means to minimize the visual mass of structure. Configurations can be vaulted, domed and double-curved. Systems can be welded, bolt-up, or some combination of each. Grid shell structures with integrated cable bracing can produce a highly efficient structure with a refined aesthetic. Cable prestress is required on such systems. Grid shells can be used in vertical and overhead applications, as well as to form complete building enclosures.

Boston Courthouse
Cerner Corporate Headquarters
Desert Bloom Porte Cochere: Casino Morongo

click for a complete list of this project type

5.Cable Nets

Frei Otto developed and popularized cable nets as a structural system in the 1960s and 70s. Architect Helmut Jahn with engineering firm Schlaich Bergermann applied the technology in a most innovative manner in 1992 as a flat cable net supported glass facade for the Kempinski Hotel in Munich, fueling widespread interest in this structural form in glass facade applications.

Cable nets represent the ultimate in elegant minimalist structural systems and can provide optimum transparency when the effect of a sheer glass membrane is desired. The glass is supported by a net geometry of pre-tensioned cables. Designs can be flat, or the net can be pulled into double-curvature. A clamping component locks the cables together at their vertices and fixes the glass to the net. Large pre-stress loads in the net structures require the early involvement of the facade design/ build team with the building engineer.

Newseum
Richard J Klarchek Information Commons

click for a complete list of this project type

6.Glass Fin Systems

This is the earliest form of structural glass facade dating back to the 1950s and the French Hahn system used at the Maison de la Radio in Paris in 1953. Here 2-story glass plates were suspended and laterally stiffened by the use of glass fins set perpendicular to the plates at the vertical joints between them. This technology was popularized by the Willis Faber & Dumas Building, Ipswich, England circa 1972. In this curved facade designed by Foster Associates, multiple plates of reflective glass are suspended to provide one of the first examples of an entire building facade being skinned by frameless glass. This project inspired a diffusion of glass fin technology in numerous applications throughout Europe and America starting in the 1970s and continuing today. Glass fin-supported facades still represent one of the most transparent forms of structural glass facades and an economical solution (especially at lower spans).

Belmont Police Department and City Hall
River East Center
Shure Corporate Headquarters

click for a complete list of this project type

7.Glass Structures

Glass is increasingly being explored as a structural element. Glass stair treads and landings have become commonplace, and the material has even seen limited use in column and beam applications. Apple stores have explored this capacity to spectacular effect.

One of the hottest areas of glass development is in glass beams. These typically take the form of multi-ply laminates of heat-treated glass, and special structural laminates are sometimes used. The analysis and connection detailing of these components requires particular expertise. Enclos completed what is believed to be the largest single application of structural glass with the Howard Hughes Medical Center, which included the extensive use of glass beams.

Howard Hughes Medical Center
Ventura Canopy

click for a complete list of this project type

3.High-Performance Facade Systems

High-Performance Facade Systems

Enclos is the leader in high-performance facade systems. We were the first to design and proof a blast resistant facade system through destructive testing performed at White Sands Missile Base. We have developed and tested impact-resistant facade systems that have been approved by Miami-Dade County for use in hurricane zones. Our projects have often required the development of curtainwall systems with enhanced thermal and/or acoustical properties.

4.Art Glass Facades

Art Glass Facades

Enclos has provided art glass solutions on many high-profile building projects, often working with glass artists and architects in developing innovative designs. Our talented design team has an expertise with glass materials and processes that greatly facilitates the development of novel design solutions. Coupled with our fabrication and site operations, you cannot find a stronger, more capable team for providing art glass solutions.

see a select list of art glass projects

Glazing Systems

Framed Systems

Framed systems support the glass continuously along two or four sides. There are many variations of framed systems, most of which fall into two general categories. Conventional unitized curtain wall systems are seldom used with structural glass facades.

click for a complete list of this project type

Veneer

Truss systems can be designed with an outer chord of square or rectangular tubing, and may include transom components of similar material, presenting a uniform flat grid installed to high tolerances. Such a system can provide continuous support to the simplest and most minimal off-the-shelf glazing system, thus combining relatively high transparency with excellent economy. A veneer glazing system is essentially a stick-built curtainwall system designed for continuous support and representing a higher level of system integration with resulting efficiencies. Variations can include 4-sided capture, 2-sided capture, structurally glazed and unitized systems.

Orange County Performing Arts Center
Eskind Biomedical Library

click for a complete list of this project type

Frameless Systems

Frameless systems utilize glass panes that are fixed to a structural system at discrete points, usually near the corners of the glass panel (point-fixed). The glass is directly supported without the use of perimeter framing elements. The glass used in point-fixed applications is typically heat-treated.

click for a complete list of this project type

Point-fixed Clamped

Point-fixed clamped systems accomplish the point fixing without the requirement for perforations in the glass. In the case of a spider type fitting, the spider is rotated 45 degrees from the bolted position so that its arms align with the glass seams. A thin blade penetrates through the seam between adjacent pieces of glass. An exterior plate attaches to the blade and clamps the glass in place. The bolted systems present an uninterrupted glass surface, while the clamped systems expose the small exterior clamp plate. Some facade designers prefer the exposed hardware aesthetic. While the clamped systems have the potential for greater economy by eliminating the need for glass perforations, the cost of the clamping hardware may offset at least some of this savings depending upon the efficiency of the design.

51 Louisiana
LA Live Tower & Residences: Podium
Richard J Klarchek Information Commons
Shure Corporate Headquarters

click for a complete list of this project type

Stick

Stick-built glass facades are a method of curtainwall construction where much of the fabrication and assembly takes place in the field. Mullions of extruded aluminum may be prefabricated, but are delivered as unassembled “sticks” to the building site. The mullions are then installed onto the building face to create a frame for the glass, which is installed subsequently. Economical off-the-shelf stick curtain wall products are available from various manufacturers that may be suitable for application in structural glass facades, primarily on truss systems.

LAUSD Central LA Area High School #9
San Diego Convention Center
Washington Convention Center

click for a complete list of this project type

Panel/Cassette

Panel systems are typically constructed of a framed glass lite. The framed panel can then be point-supported by a supporting structural system, while the glass remains continuously supported on two or four sides. This also allows the panel to be stepped away from the support system — a practice that tends to visually lighten the facade. Panel systems can be prefabricated, benefiting from assembly under factory-controlled conditions.

Cassette systems combine properties of stick, veneer and panel systems. While variations exist, the predominant makeup of a cassette system is comprised of a primary structural mullion system, which is stick built. These provide the support and facilitate the attachment of the glass panels. The glass lites are factory assembled into minimal frames, which form an integral connection with the primary mullion system. A cassette system can be designed to be fully shop-glazed, requiring no application of sealant during field installation.

Cerner Corporate Headquarters

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Point-fixed Bolted

The most popular glass system — and frequently the most expensive — for application with structural glass facades is the bolted version. The glass panel requires perforations to accommodate specialized bolting hardware. Specially designed off-the-shelf hardware systems are readily available, or custom components can be designed. Cast stainless steel spider fittings are most commonly used to tie the glass to the supporting structure, although custom fittings are often developed for larger facade projects. The glass must be designed to accommodate bending loads and deflections resulting from the fixing method. An insulated-laminated glass panel as required for overhead applications will require the fabrication of 12 holes per panel, which can represent a cost constraint on some projects.

Cathedral of Christ the Light
Lloyd D. George Federal Courthouse
Newseum
San Jose Civic Center
Suvarnabhumi Airport Bangkok

click for a complete list of this project type

Weather Seal

The weather seal in most structural glass facade systems is provided by a field applied butt-glazed silicone joint. This technique provides a reliable and durable weather seal if simple procedures are followed during installation. An advantage of this sealing strategy is that any leaks, usually caused by installation errors, are easily detected and repaired. The joint design is critical, and is largely a function of the glass makeup and thickness. Compatibility between the field-applied silicone and the interlayer, if using laminated glass, or the edge seal in the case of an IGU, must be confirmed with the silicone material provider. The provider should also be consulted about the joint design. Craftsmanship is critical for the field application of the sealant to assure a visually satisfactory result.

click for a complete list of this project type

Other Considerations

1.Cables, Rods, Castings, and Machined Components

In addition to the glass and structural systems that comprise structural glass facade technology are the components that in turn comprise these systems — components quite unlike those typically used in exterior wall systems. The use of tensile elements in the form of steel cables and rods is a primary design strategy to dematerialize the structure and enhance the transparency of a facade design. Compression elements are frequently minimized or eliminated, and where present are crafted from cast and machined components in an elegant expression of exposed structure. The fittings and components that tie these structural members together are similarly crafted.

Here an entirely different set of material and process considerations come into play.
The Enclos design team has mastered these materials and processes as a necessary prerequisite to their appropriate application in component design. We can develop and provide custom designs of remarkable diversity in response to your particular project needs. Where appropriate, we can also source off-the-shelf components from a variety of suppliers, all carefully qualified to Enclos Corp standards and subject to our uncompromising quality assurance program. All this, from concept design through installation, as part of a single-source package from the largest national specialist in structural glass facade technology.

Cables

Bridge builder and engineer John A. Roebling first manufactured wire rope in America in the 1840’s. These materials ultimately found their way into the vernacular of architecture through such stunning works as Mathew Nowicki’s Dorton Arena of 1952 and the Ingalls Rink at Yale University of 1958 designed by Eero Saarinen. Structural glass facade technology has embraced these tensile materials as a means to minimize the structural profile of the support system. Wire rope composition, material type, finish, and end terminations are all important considerations in specifying these materials, which are available from a relatively limited number of manufacturers and specialty fabricators. Enclos Corp has put many of these manufacturers through its rigorous qualification process, resulting in several exceptional vendor/partners that have successfully provided materials on various structural glass facade projects that we have completed in recent years.

Rods

The use of steel rods as a substitute for cable in the design of structural glass facades was a practice borrowed from the yacht racing industry, and popularized in the Louvre Pyramid designed by IM Pei. The rods are most commonly fabricated from ASTM A316 stainless steel because of the material’s combination of strength and corrosion resistance. In high load applications or when super thin profiles are desired, there are other higher strength stainless options. The rod terminations are often custom designed and can be quite refined, with the intent of minimizing or eliminating any exposed threads, turnbuckle or other tensioning mechanism. Rod fabrication typically involves slipping the end fittings over the rod and upsetting the rod ends through a process called cold-heading. Alternately, equally elegant threaded fittings have also been developed. Depending upon the design of the structure, cable systems can have significant advantages over rod systems, particularly with respect to cost. However, some feel that the refined appearance of a rod system is worth a premium cost.

Casting

Casting is an ancient process with a longtime role in the construction industry, including the naming of a “cast-iron architecture” during the industrial revolution resulting from a dramatic increase in the availability of low cost cast materials. Castings were much later used to spectacular affect in the gerberettes and other components for the Center Pompidou by architects Rogers and Piano. The casting of structural components however demands a high level expertise in both the design and fabrication process. Cast nodes for the space frame structure on the Javits Convention Center in New York were famously discovered during construction to contain cracks, requiring the disassembly of nearly half the structure and a project delay of nearly two years. An intimate knowledge of the materials and processes of casting is critical to the development and implementation of a custom cast structural component. Among components appropriate for casting are spiders and glass-fixing devices, spacer struts and anchor assemblies. Various options for material and finish must be considered depending upon component design application.

Machined Components

In many respects, structural glass facade technology is more closely akin to the automotive industry than it is to conventional construction. Spider fittings are about as far from the brick as a building component can be. Structural glass facades are highly engineered structures built to very high tolerances. There is also an important visual aspect to the components because of their use in exposed structural systems. Despite a widespread pursuit of facade transparency, many designers choose to express this exposed structure in dramatic fashion, sometimes even at the expense of ultimate transparency. These factors and considerations make the use of machined components a frequent and effective choice. We design custom components or specify off-the-shelf parts as appropriate, and source both from our network of vendor/partners.

2.Architecturally Exposed Structural Steel (AESS)

The art of steel. Structural glass facades are not simply about transparency. Often the designer seeks to express the structural system supporting the facade, sometimes even at the expense of transparency. What is necessarily required here is a level of craftsmanship that extends far beyond what is found in conventional structural steel.The AISC specification for Architecturally Exposed Structural Steel (AESS) is often applied to structural glass facade designs. These designs frequently include exposed structural systems in high profile public areas, such as building lobbies and atria, and as long-span facade systems in airports, museums, and government buildings.The AESS spec is intended to provide the designer a means to control the visual quality of structural steel used in such applications. However, this specification is no panacea to the problem of communicating the requirements for visual quality such that the same expectations are shared by all relevant parties. An AESS Supplement published by Modern Steel Construction states, “Unfortunately, existing codes and standards — even AISC’s Code of Standard Practice — do not fully address the unique level of detail needed to successfully design, detail, fabricate and erect Architecturally Exposed Structural Steel (AESS).”Enclos has designed and provided many AESS structures as part of its custom facade work. We understand the demanding design, fabrication, assembly and installation requirements involved in the successful implementation of this specification, and we can bring this valuable capability to your team.

Exposed Structural Systems

The use of transparency and exposed structural systems in architectural design go hand-in-hand. While structural glass facade systems make frequent use of cables, rods, and machined fittings, they also often include fabricated steel assemblies ranging from exposed anchor components to custom truss systems.The craftsmanship required for AESS is a rare competency. We have developed a network of qualified AESS steel fabrication vendors, a network built over time and upon the experience of many successfully completed projects. Enclos is able to manage the delivery process in a manner that best assures predictability of outcome, thus mitigating the risk of budget overruns and schedule delays.

Weld Quality and Workmanship

An important consideration with exposed structural steel is the treatment of welds. Designers often want welds to be ground flush and smooth, sometimes even polished. However, primary consideration must be given to the structural integrity of the weld. Accommodating both the structural performance requirements and the desired appearance starts as a critical design issue; welds must be designed such that both criteria can be satisfied in the fabrication and finishing processes. We are practiced at controlling this process from concept design through completed fabrication. The fit-up requirements for bolted connections can be an equally important consideration.

Finishes

Red iron rusts. Of the many great attributes of steel, this is not one of them. Exposed structural steel must be protected, and most often the finish requirements are meant to augment the appearance of the structure and not merely to protect the steel.The term “automotive finish” is frequently heard yet seldom achieved. Hot-dipped galvanizing can provide superior protection with a top color coat for appearance. Most steel fabrications are too large for this process however, and there are environmental concerns regarding its use. The application of paint over a galvanized surface can be tricky as well. Various other paint systems exist, most involving the application of a primer coat over a carefully prepared surface, followed by one or two color top coats. Metallic finishes are available and have been used successfully in a number of applications. A key decision is whether to apply the final coat in the field or in the shop. Shop application is invariably superior, but almost certainly subject to damage during shipping, assembly and erection even when extensive precautions are taken to protect the finish. A field touchup specification is as important as the basic finish specification in the case of factory applied finish.

Budgeting

The AESS Supplement comments, “…because AESS costs more to fabricate than standard structural steel, it is critical that these designs are properly budgeted. The repercussion of not properly budgeting AESS is often the need for redesign, project delays, and ultimately even higher project costs.” The budget for AESS is affected by subtle decisions regarding material, surface quality, weld quality and finish.Whether the concern is for welds, finishes, budgeting or any other aspect of AESS, Enclos can act as an expert guide through the maze of decision making to best assure the development of an appropriate AESS specification and its effective implementation.

http://www.enclos.com/service-technology/technology/


February 14, 2011

1Bligh Street | Architectus + Ingenhoven Architects

 
Extending the ideas Architectus proposed in the Stage 1 DA, the proposal has been developed with three critical considerations: the View, the Public Space, and the Work Environment.The ViewThe corner of Bligh and Bent Streets strongly marks the main address for the building. The elliptical form aligns with the grid to the north and is oriented to the harbour, maximising views and creating premium office space and a quality work environment.The Public SpaceThe reduced building footprint creates a significant new public space for Sydney that allows deep soil landscaping and extends Farrer Place.

Broad curving steps rise to the sheltered wintergarden and provide an ideal place to sit in the sun and appreciate the full expanse of Farrer Place and the heritage buildings of the Education and Lands Department.

The Work Environment

The Work Environment is designed around the principles of ESD, flexibility, efficiency, communication and transparency.

The sustainability strategies proposed achieve a 5-star ABGR and the highest ESD standards. A fully shaded double skin facade provides excellent Indoor Environment Quality (IEQ).

The structure delivers consistent large floor plates of up to 1600 m2 and achieves 92% efficiency Nett Lettable Area to Floor Space Area. 40% of office space is within 4.5 m of the façade with 1000 m2 contiguous column free space creating high potential for office layout flexibility. The elliptical plan is 12% more efficient than a rectangular building in façade to floor area and allows excellent natural light penetration. The atrium makes dynamic views accessible to all.

The building is set to create a new benchmark in Australia for sustainable high rise and provide an enduring presence attuned to emerging cultural, social and environmental concerns.

Project summary

  • Client
    DEXUS Property Group/Cbus Property
  • Location
    Sydney, Australia
  • Floor area
    42 700 m²
  • Completed
    May 2011
  • Original value
    $270m
  • Contact
    Ray Brown

Awards

  • DEXUS/City of Sydney design competition winner
http://www.architectus.co.nz/projects/1-bligh-street-sydney 
 

Australia’s most ecological high rise office tower stands proud in Sydney

1 Bligh office tower, designed by ingenhoven architects + architectus, was inaugurated by Australian Prime Minister Julia Gillard last week. The architects were commissioned to design this tower in the centre of Sydney, Australia in 2006 as the result of an international design competition by the client, the Dexus Property Group.But the prominence and prestige of this 28-storey tower lies not only in its formidable size and design, but in its evident commitment to environmental sustainability. The $670 million building received the highest score in the Australian Green Star standard, a 6 Star/World Leadership certification, and is hence the first office tower in Sydney to get this rating by the Green Building Council of Australia (GBCA).Its light and airy appearance is achieved by an atrium as tall as the tower itself, which offers natural daylighting and allows for natural ventilation of the offices and balconies that face in towards it.

With glass elevators running up and down the atrium, routine journeys to and from the workplace are transformed into exciting visual and spatial experiences. The shape of the building itself is derived from view corridors and solar orientation, and the transparent office building with its elliptical floor plan offers unobstructed views of the world-famous Harbour Bridge of Sydney.

A public plaza complements the opposite Farrer Place to create one of downtown Sydney’s most attractive urban spaces. A large grand staircase and the first floor are open to the public and two new cafes and a Kindergarten in the building help to animate the space.

There is also an outdoor terrace with a harbour view at the transfer-level in the 15th floor as well as a large rooftop terrace at the 28th floor, providing a unique spot to enjoy the sights of Sydney.

Its environmental credentials are as impressive as its scenic views. The tower is the first in Australia to have a double skin facade and to use natural ventilation, while the energy system combines cooling, heating and electric power generation (Tri-Generation) and a vacuum tube solar collector that produces electricity on site. Because water is an especially precious resource in Australia, 1 Bligh has its own filtration plant in the basement, capable of cleansing more waste water than the building actually produces. As a result, more waste water from the public sewage system is used, cleaned and brought back to the cycle.

300 safe parking spots for bikes (complete with shower) make the environmentally-friendly commute to the building easy and complete the ecological profile of the building.

1 Bligh has been awarded the 2011 Asia Pacific Property Award and the International Architecture Award already before completion.

Amongst the most noteworthy buildings that ingenhoven architects have designed are the RWEtower in Essen, the Lufthansa Aviation Center in Frankfurt, the European Investment bank in Luxembourg and the new Headquarters of the Swarovski Corporation in Zurich. Currently they are working on a cluster of high-rise buildings in Singapore, the new Headquarters of the HDI-Gerling Insurance in Hanover and the new high-speed railway station in Stuttgart. Only recently the office was commissioned to design the new Google Headquarters in California. ingenhoven architects have won many awards for their designs including the Global Holcim Award, the European Architecture Award and the RIBA International Award.

http://www.worldarchitecturenews.com/index.php?fuseaction=wanappln.projectview&upload_id=17519

more pics from ArchDaily n all Courtesy of Ingenhoven Architects:

http://www.archdaily.com/169173/1-bligh-office-tower-ingenhoven-architects/

February 14, 2011

Sydney’s first major ‘double-skin’ high-rise

February 2010 – Work is underway at 1 Bligh Street, Sydney, to construct Australia’s first major high-rise building with a full ‘double-skin’ facade. JOHN POWER investigates whether two sets of glazing skins are really twice as good as single-skin options.

When 1 Bligh Street, a 29-storey office building overlooking Circular Quay in the heart of Sydney, is completed in April 2011, this $270 million structure will be a visually and functionally unique landmark.
The 42,000-square-metre development will deliver 6 Star Green Star (5 Star NABERS Energy) performance through a range of tightly integrated ESD (ecologically sustainable development) solutions, the most notable of which is a ‘double-skin’ facade.
As the phrase suggests, a double-skin facade consists of two separate glazing systems – in layman’s terms: two layers of windows. The design being incorporated into 1 Bligh Street has an INNER skin of high-quality, double-glazed windows, and an OUTER skin of single-sheet laminated glass. There is a 600mm cavity between the two skins – providing sufficient space to accommodate a sophisticated automated venetian blind system, as well as walkway gantries at each level of the building for access by cleaners and maintenance personnel.
While double-skin facades are popular in the Northern Hemisphere, where such energy-efficient designs are highly prized for their superior insulation and anti-glare properties, there are fewer examples of double-skin systems in Australia. The 5,500-square-metre Bendigo Police Station in Victoria is a good example.
The outermost glass skin at 1 Bligh Street has two primary functions: first, fixed horizontal ventilation slots at all levels of the building encourage upward airflow in the cavity between skins, helping to expel unwanted hot air; second, this outer skin serves as a weather shield to protect the motorised venetian blinds from severe winds.
The inner skin, utilising double-glazing for world-class thermal efficiency, provides an effective barrier against heat gain in summer and heat loss in winter, and maximises the benefits derived from the external venetian blinds.
According to Ray Brown, director of the Australian architectural firm Architectus – which designed the building in collaboration with German colleague Christoph Ingenhoven – the geographic and climatic conditions at 1 Bligh Street were major influences on the specification of the double-skin façade.
“The siting was really a fundamental issue; it all comes down to the siting, the use of the building, and the natural attributes of the site,” Brown says. “The building is at the heart of the commercial core of the city and looks out over the harbour. Even though it is set back several blocks, there are panoramic harbour views from the fourth level.”
Brown says the venetian blinds between the glazing skins are intrinsic to overall building performance. “Normally, external blinds of this kind can’t survive the conditions of a high-rise building more than 40 to 50 metres off the ground, so the second (outer) skin of glass is a wind shield for the blinds, which are the main solar shading system.”
Co-architect Christoph Ingenhoven, speaking recently1 with Professor Steffen Lehmann, UNESCO Chair in Sustainable Urban Development for Asia and the Pacific, and chair of the School of Architecture and Built Environment at The University of Newcastle, adds that double-skin sun protection is vital for both energy efficiency and user comfort.
“Our first eco-high-rise was the RWE Tower in Essen 25 years ago, which was all about the building’s envelope,” Ingenhoven says. “Since then, we have done over 40 buildings with dual-glass skin facades, and the technology has greatly evolved over this time. The Bligh Street tower will be the first high-rise to receive a 6 Star certificate on the Green Star rating system. This tower will be equipped with a real double-skin façade and will be ventilated by an atrium stretching the whole height of the tower. Fifty percent of the ventilation will be provided by the double-skin façade.
“The building will capture great gap views to Circular Quay, and there is a whole range of things we have introduced that will make the project work well. For instance, the façade will allow us to have a 100 percent shading solution and glare protection, with perforated internally adjustable blinds within the 600mm double-skin cavity. The sun protection is very efficient, while maintaining the views, so we can use non-tinted glass on the outer skin. This makes the building extremely transparent and will offer the user a different experience. The ventilated outer skin is made of clear glass, which will ensure a highly transparent building.”

The façade of 1 Bligh Street in Sydney will feature two distinct sets of glass skins. Automated venetian blinds will function between the skins, shielded from the elements.

BUILDING WITH VISION
Indeed, the clarity of the glass used in both glass skins of the façade will be one of the most eye-catching elements of the design.
Conventional office buildings usually incorporate some form of tinted or reflective glazing in order to minimise the amount of direct sunlight and heat entering the structure. The trade-off is a darkened or pearlescent finish that can visually isolate the occupants of the building from the natural environment and create unwanted reflectivity, particularly at night, when the inner glass can resemble a mirror.
The Bligh Street glass, supplied by G. James, has a 60 percent VLT (visual light transmission), compared to normal office glazing specifications of approximately 25–40 percent. In other words, onlookers will be struck by the crystal clear views into the building; meantime, the occupants will experience ‘true-to-life’ panoramic views of the harbour and the city’s genuine colours.
The double-skin façade will “definitely stand apart”, says Kerryn Coker, from engineering consultancy ARUP, who has worked closely on the project.
“In terms of the overall look, you have to realise that most commercial buildings have a VLT of no more than 35–40 percent, used with internal blinds that mean ‘no views’ when drawn,” she explains.
“So the immediate benefit of a double-skin façade is that you introduce operable external blinds, which typically you can’t have on a high-rise, to produce a shading coefficient of 0.15 with the blinds down and uninterrupted views when they’re up.”
Coker says that the external skin’s fixed (open) ventilation slots, measuring approximately 100mm wide, will allow wind to circulate fresh air through the cavity between the skins and stop excessive heat build-up. This means the internal skin will never be exposed to air temperatures that are vastly higher than the outside ambient air temperature.
“Wind rather than convection will typically drive the air movement,” Coker explains. “In Sydney you practically never experience a completely still day.”

The outer glazing skin, i.e. the external glass panel exposed to the elements, has been designed to promote airflow through fixed horizontal vents at the top and bottom of each level of the building, thereby preventing excessive heat build-up during summer.

FULL CONTROL
Strong winds, of course, are not compatible with sophisticated venetian blind systems. As already mentioned, the outer skin of the building is a protective barrier against the elements for these units.
Jason Turner, whose firm Turner Bros is responsible for the installation of the motorised venetian blinds and accompanying façade control system – all supplied by Horiso – says there will be a total 1774 separate blinds throughout the building, i.e. an average 64 units per typical level.
Each unit, measuring 3300mm high and 1702mm wide, will be positioned in the cavity between the two skins, “on the inside of the outer glazing,” Turner notes, “where the pelmet attaches to the bottom of the vent at the top of each section.”
Overall, these units will form part of a powerful management platform to conserve energy and optimise user comfort. The aluminium blades [colour RAL 9007] will have a width of 80mm each.
Turner says a Horiso Dynamic Façade Controller has been programmed to track the path of the sun, which changes slightly each day of the year. The system will automatically adjust the angle of the blades in each blind depending on the orientation of the façade and the momentary position of the sun.
One of the strengths of the system, Turner says, is its ease of operation. The facility manager will be able to make use of a GUI (graphical user interface) for on-screen views of the positional settings of each blind on each floor. This system provides complete centralised control, which is vital, for instance, when overriding automatic functions for scheduled cleaning.
Similarly, individual building users can manually override pre-set functions for personal privacy, or to darken a room for video conferencing presentations, etc. Automatic functions will resume after a specified period.

CLEANSKINS
It goes without saying that a double-skin façade requires more cleaning than a single-skin glass façade: “about twice as much,” Ray Brown jokes.
However, as Kerryn Coker observes, while the exterior of the outer skin – the surface exposed to the elements – will probably require six-monthly cleaning, the other surfaces will require less regular attention.
Coker says a customised, permanent BMU (building maintenance unit), comprising a cantilever-lowered cradle, will be used for the outer face of the building.
The cavity between the skins should be less susceptible to weather-related grime, and the gantry set-up will greatly enhance the speed and safety of this cleaning task.

Footnote
1. Professor Christoph Lehmann spoke to Carl Ingenhoven recently as part of an interview for the article ‘Beauty in Necessity: Christoph Ingenhoven’, which appeared in the August-September 2009 issue of Architectural Review, a sister publication of Facility Management.

1 BLIGH STREET AT A GLANCE
PROJECT NAME 1 Bligh Street, Sydney
ARCHITECTS Architectus + Ingenhoven Architects
BUILDING CO-OWNERS DEXUS Property Group and Cbus Property
BUILDER Grocon.

CONTACT
Architectus www.architectus.com.au
ARUP www.arup.com
Ingenhoven Architects www.ingenhovenarchitects.com
G. James Glass & Aluminium www.gjames.com.au
Turner Bros www.turnerbros.com.au

http://dev.niche.com.au/fmmag/sydneys-first-major-double-skin-high-rise/


February 11, 2011

Custom Curtainwall Systems by enclos

Enclos offers the most innovative curtainwall systems in the marketplace, combining aesthetic, performance and economic considerations into optimum solutions to our client’s needs. Our inventive unitized systems have evolved through their application on numerous major building projects to represent the state-of-the-art in curtainwall technology and performance. Sophisticated system design features and installation methods have paralleled this evolution, resulting in improved economy as well as superior performance.

What Is Curtainwall

What Is Curtainwall

Curtainwall is a term applied to a widely used facade technology for cladding large buildings. Curtainwall systems do not carry any dead loads imposed from the building structure. They are designed to support their self-weight and to transfer horizontal loads (wind) incident upon them to the primary building structure.

Curtainwall systems are typically “hung” from the building structure — from whence derives the “curtain” reference — and typically attached to the floor slabs. The primary functions of the curtainwall are to resist air and water infiltration and to provide a thermal barrier between inside and out. Curtainwall systems are also designed to accommodate the complexities of deflections, thermal expansion and contraction, building sway and relative movements between floors as caused by wind or seismic loads acting globally or locally on the structure.

Special design considerations can include daylighting, thermal, acoustical, security and blast-resistant performance. Curtainwall designs for large buildings are almost always customized to individual project requirements.

The craftsmanship required for AESS is a rare competency. We have developed a network of qualified AESS steel fabrication vendors, a network built over time and upon the experience of many successfully completed projects. Enclos is able to manage the delivery process in a manner that best assures predictability of outcome, thus mitigating the risk of budget overruns and schedule delays. Enclos’ QA programs fully incorporate AESS requirements.

Cladding

Cladding

Glass is the most common infill material used in curtainwall systems, but other cladding materials include metal panels, natural stone and terracotta. The curtainwall systems typically span across the floor slabs, creating a need for opaque cladding material over and in the vicinity of the floor slab to conceal the slab edge, fire-safing and any between-floor mechanical systems. A spandrel panel is often located between vision glass panels to conceal this area. To achieve opacity, spandrel glass is treated with a ceramic coating (called a frit), a film, or is incorporated into an assembly called a shadow box.

Glass is used extensively as a curtainwall cladding material because of its transparency and ability to provide daylight and view. Solar gain in such applications can present challenges with respect to energy performance, thermal and visual comfort, and represent important design considerations in the development of an appropriate curtainwall facade. Ongoing research and development has positioned the Enclos team to provide optimum solutions to these challenges, and has worked with leading architects in the development of high performance glass facades on many buildings pursuing LEED certification by the US Green Building Council.

Enclos has designed curtainwall systems for many LEED certified buildings

Anchorage

Anchorage

It is an exciting time for the development of advanced facade technology. At the same time, the fundamentals of sound curtainwall design have lost none of their critical import.

One of the basic considerations that impacts every building project without exception is the means by which the curtainwall is anchored to the building. Anchor design can affect many things beyond the immediate curtainwall design, including the work of other trades and the design of the building interior. As with so many other aspects of the building skin, Enclos continues to lead the way with anchor design. Enclos anchor designs can be positioned on the face, top or bottom of slab, or recessed in any of these positions. The Enclos anchoring method is highly efficient, speeds field installation of the curtainwall and provides optimum economy to the building developer.

Curtainwall anchors are set prior to the commencement of unit installation. If the anchors are to be recessed, they are sometimes set prior to the concrete floor slabs being poured, or provision is made for a cavity in the slab into which the anchor assembly will be installed.Our inventive unitized systems have evolved through their application on numerous major building projects to represent the state-of-the-art in curtainwall technology and performance. Sophisticated system design features and installation methods have paralleled this evolution, resulting in improved economy as well as superior performance.

Framing

Framing

Curtainwall is typically designed as cladding materials that are framed and fixed in place by extruded aluminum components. There are two basic types of systems:

  • Stick systems are built from long vertical extrusions (mullion) attached to the building structure, with shorter horizontal extrusions spanning between the vertical mullions to create the frames. Cladding materials are then installed into the frames. Extrusions may be fabricated in the shop, but all assembly, installation and glazing takes place in the field.
  • Unitized systems are a newer adaptation of curtainwall technology that has rapidly grown in use in recent years. The vertical and horizontal framing members are figuratively split, allowing independently framed “units” to be assembled and glazed in the factory. The units can be designed to span multiple floors or multiple horizontal modules, and can incorporate multiple cladding elements including operable vents and windows. The completed units are shipped to the site and simply hung on the building. Unitized systems concentrate fabrication and assembly under controlled factory rather than in the field. The selection between them is dependent upon project specific variables.

Enclos technical personnel can assist you in determining which system type is best for your particular project.

Facade Integration

Facade Integration

In addressing the challenges discussed above, and in meeting the generally escalating performance demands on the building skin, curtainwall designs have become increasingly complex. Facade system requirements now frequently include daylight harvesting, daylight and glare control, artificial lighting, and even power generation. Techniques for addressing these considerations are being integrated into the curtainwall system, providing advanced functionality to the building facade. Photovoltaic systems, shade fins, light shelves, louvers, operable blinds, sensors and multiple skins are among the things being integrated into the curtainwall system.

The building community has recognized the facade as a primary means to improve energy performance and occupant comfort, and even as a potential power source.

Installation

Installation

Installation strategy is highly sensitive to specific site, schedule and coordination requirements. All Enclos operations are driven by the requirements of the building site.

Unitized curtainwall systems provide optimum flexibility in this regard. Materials can be fabricated, assembled and stored offsite, and be delivered on a just-in-time basis as required to support installation crews, thus minimizing on-site storage and staging requirements on highly congested building sites. Assembled units are delivered to the site on open flatbed trailers. The units can be lifted by crane from the trailer and directly set in place on the building facade. Alternately, units can be designed to be installed from inside the building. Installation crews working from a floor above use a small jib crane to lower the units to a setting crew below. Other techniques are possible depending upon specific project requirements.

Installation strategy, site logistics and operations are among the greatest strengths of Enclos, and represent the capability most valued by our general contracting clients.

http://www.enclos.com/service-technology/custom-curtainwall/

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

February 4, 2011

Double-glazing vs. masonry

Do More With Less

Double-glazing vs. masonry. Why, in an era of rapidly diminshing resources, is architecture so technologically complex?

By: Kiel Moe

Credit: Jameson Simpson

Architects often have a nostalgic view of progress: Our feebly linear understanding assumes that humanity always benefits when a new technology arises. Architects frequently deploy systems, software, and products to replace older versions and differentiate themselves in a crowded and competitive marketplace. Many architects thus embrace linear progress with excitement and incorporate technology with misplaced enthusiasm, unaware that they are caught in a vicious cycle, based on recurrent, and self-undercutting, obsolescence. Technology is anything but new, and the traditional view of progress—a curiously mixed cocktail of acquiescence and hubris—reflects little about its real dynamics.

 

In reality, progress is nonlinear and unstable. As such, it is very much open to design. Today, progress itself must be designed. Contrary to the traditional model, one design for progress today would selectively de-escalate the most egregious forms of technology in favor of a lower-technology but higher-performance paradigm. Neither stubbornly reactionary nor blindly optimistic, this lower-technology, higher-performance approach is an intelligent mongrel of both the archaic and the contemporary, and it can improve the performance of our design practices and buildings.

Instead of adding ever-increasing layers of intricacy, specificity, and coordination, architects should question the complexity that dominates our buildings and lives. Using a low-technology, high-performance approach, architects can exceed the performance expectations of a higher-technology building, and in the process they can engender durability, adaptability, tolerance, and, most importantly, resilience—qualities that are increasingly fundamental to architecture. One cannot underestimate the role of designed resilience in the 21st century.

Conspicuous Consumption, Conspicuous Construction
The linear model of progress in architecture is invariably additive: When architects encounter new problems and obligations, they often respond by layering materials, technologies, consultants, software. The double-glazed envelope is a classic example—a cascade of compensations for the conceit of an overilluminated, underinsulated glass box. The extra glass and steel, automated shading devices, fire controls, and operable vents consume prodigious amounts of embodied energy and coordination time. These costs are difficult to justify when envelopes with a vastly more sensible 20 to 40 percent ratio of window to opaque, insulated wall can yield much higher performance for thermal conditions, lighting, operational energy, embodied energy, serviceability, and resilience.

 

Monolithic wall assemblies such as site-cast, air-entrained, lightweight insulating concrete are, by contrast, an optimal approach to the de-escalation of technology. The lower strength of lightweight concrete requires greater wall thickness to perform structurally. The concrete incorporates millions of air pockets that provide insulation equal to layered insulated wall assemblies and that manage vapor and water migration with its capacity to “breathe.” Indeed, what are often seen today as problems inherent to building envelopes, such as vapor or water migration, only became problematic as assemblies became layered with thinner, task-specific systems and air conditioning.

Whether lightweight air-entrained concrete, solid cross-laminated wood panels, solid masonry, or solid stone, monolithic assemblies become even more beneficial when coupled with a thermally active surface for heating and cooling, created by moving water through pipes that are embedded directly into walls and ceilings. Structure becomes the primary mechanical system. In Portland, Ore., Opsis Architecture renovated a masonry horse stable into its new office by retrofitting the building with a thermally active surface, which at once served as the seismic retrofit, the thermal-conditioning system, a perdurable finish material, and a foundation for a future expansion.

Bureaucracy of Technique
Architects have inherited a mentality of overly programmed, layered, engineered, additive, complex, and obsolescent design from the 20th century. We routinely strain against the bureaucracy of techniques we have passively grown to accept. We lose more ground than we gain in our successive attempts at “progress,” and yet, somehow, we routinely acquire more liability. Architecture stands to benefit from a rigorous reevaluation of its more pernicious theories, techniques, and technologies.

As the complexity of buildings and practices continues to increase, so does our inability to know the difficult whole. This is an intellectually and professionally dubious position. In a radically less-additive mentality, there are systemic gains for buildings and practices when we do more with less by orders of magnitude: 40 drawings in a construction set, not 400, for instance. Practices that do this know more about what they do and do more of what they know well. Doing less but better, and in turn achieving more, is consequential progress. A primary aim of de-escalating technology is an escalation of actual knowledge about technique, practice, and performance.

Twin Obsolescence
Architecture’s chronically divergent preoccupations with a building’s image and the inevitable obsolescence of ever-escalating technologies and systems is not a cogent pathway forward in this century, and it never was. Rather, consequential progress will emerge only when architects productively merge architecture’s objecthood and objectivity; when they grasp that a single-speed bicycle offers a model of far-higher-performance design than a Toyota Prius, much less a Formula One race car.

In all aspects of practice, an increasingly interesting question has arisen: What is the least architects can do and still exuberantly achieve or exceed the expectations of our discipline? This is not to suggest laziness, or some trivial minimalism, but rather to invoke a more mindful engagement with technique—a wholly untaught, unthought but inordinately consequential concept in architecture in this century.

What the profession needs is more intellectual and disciplinary agility to finally set our techniques and practices on a course for meaningful progress. This will emerge from strategic shifts in our pedagogies and practices. It will not emerge from capitulating to the demands of software packages, certification checklists, or greenwashed products. As Lewis Mumford wrote, “The machine itself makes no demands and holds out no promises.” Progress will not arrive automatically, but through thoughtful tactics and strategies. Progress will only be achieved when it is designed.

http://www.architectmagazine.com/high-performance-building/do-more-with-less-lower-tech-higher-performance.aspx

 

 

February 1, 2011

Shanghai Grand by SOM

The Shanghai Grand Center is located in the heart of Pu Dong, Shanghai’s financial and business district. The project’s concept is one of reciprocal visual connections, while its unique location on Century Boulevard allows impressive views of adjacent surroundings and the wider urban context.

Project Facts

Completion Year: 2010
Site Area: 9,786 m2
Project Area: 100,787 m2
Building Height: 170 m
Number of Stories: 41

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http://www.som.com/content.cfm/shanghai_grand

http://www.skyscrapercity.com/showthread.php?t=401827&page=40

January 30, 2011

Neo Solar Power Corporation | J. J. Pan & Partners

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Architects: J. J. Pan & Partners, Architects & Planners (JJPP)
Location:  Science Park, 
Project team: Joshua J. Pan, Chung Tsai Huang, Yi Tai Lin, Shun Lang Wu, Mallet Y.L. Chang, K. J. Lin, I-Fen Chang, Shu Chiao Hsu
Project area: 27,000 sqm
Project year: 2007 – 2009
Photographs: Courtesy of JJPP

The façade takes up the metaphor of transferring light energy to electric power with solar panels to achieve a uniqueness of the contour. The exterior walls are designed as a continuous wave of panels in the concept of “starting-folding-concluding“ to express the design ideas of “undulation, transference.” Half-unit  and aluminum curtain walls are sectioned into 8 trapezoid units, finished with over 350 -cutting patterns. The perimeter of each floor varies with the advancing and recessing surface walls, and the trimming  beam curving with the floor board serves as the fixed end of the curtain walls.The ground floor of this north-oriented building is planned with high-ceilinged foyer and an auditorium, with a staff restaurant curtained with panoramic  walls facing the central green belt. The 2nd to 7th floors are research spaces, and the 8th floor is executive offices. The 5-story plant on the south is built with damping diagonal bracing structure. The heightened basement air raid shelter and garage are planned to meet the parking needs for phase II expansion in the future.To present a clear-cut, light, and transparent look of the building, and to induce greenery indoors, the large  exterior walls of the office building are complemented with movable vertical blinds to shield off light from the north. The alcove spaces formed alongside the exterior wall is employed as R&D discussion and lounging spots, to effectively utilize the irregular spaces.

http://www.archdaily.com/105668/neo-solar-power-corporation-j-j-pan-partners/

 

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